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Geology & Resources


Exploration is the process where mineralization target/s is identified through the implementation of various available technologies. This would typically include GIS-based targeting where geological settings are considered, mineral systems analysis are done and remote sensing amongst others.

Geological mapping is the fundamental basis to any exploration project. An in-depth understanding of the lithological and structural controls of the mineralisation is required.

It is cost effective with considerable benefits to the exploration program. It is a 2-D window of the geological setting and can be indicative of the economic potential of a project to stakeholders.

Mapping would include, but not necessarily limited to:

Topographical mapping is done using real-time global positioning (GPS) technology to produce accurate surfaces, not only to add a cut-off to the 3-D geological model, but also for further utilization during the evaluation of mining parameters.

The taking of reliable samples from a mineral prospect/mine is essential for the production of accurate resource estimates. The strategy to be applied must be carefully planned to prevent the taking of biased, unrepresentative or contaminated samples.

Sampling is normally done at various phases of the project, ranging from reconnaissance to drill samples for ore resource calculation purposses.

Best practice sampling and sample preparation protocols and procedures should be designed and based on ISO standards to produce the highest possible data quality, considering the nature of the mineralisation and the environmental conditions.

Issues to be addressed should include:

As for surface mapping, drilling forms a very important tool during exploration. When properly planned it exposes the geological setting and mineralization at depth. It adds the third dimension to surface mapping to generate a 3D geological model for better understanding of the geometry of the orebody.


Management of the program would include proper planning, having supervision on site during the program and insure the proper collection of material to minimise contamination, avoid the loss of fines in the case of rotary percussion drilling and to produce representative unbiased samples.

Drilling would include percussion drilling, reverse circulation (RC) drilling and core drilling.

The following points are considered:


In any mining operation, understanding the geology of the orebody and waste rocks is fundamental for the effective mining of the mineral. We can help you by providing regular geological mapping exercises or continuously on a contractual basis. Training of your staff at your minesite can also be done in order to capture geological information more effectively.

Sound geological interpretations at the mine improve the grade control, mine planning, mine layouts and profitability. It is further a valuable tool in the near-mine exploration, or forward prospecting, program.


Ore sampling at an operational mine must be done with care and properly determined sampling periods. Together with a compositing strategy, it plays an important role in the determination of the feasibility of the operation. It further serves the pupose to maintain a grade control system that is ultimately indicative whether the material mined falls within the specifications required by the client.

Sampling also includes the material processed at the plant.

The two sets of samples will ultimately be used to determine and optimization of accurate mine call factors.

 Services include:

Grade control is used to guide mining personnel to follow payable ore zones and preventing the mining of sub-standard material. This is essential in the economic mining environment.


3D Geological Modelling

3D modeling starts with exploration using the base data, which include surface topography, surface geological map/s and borehole information, to generate a geological model of the deposit. Once the model is in place, further geological work and information from mining operations will only be used to enhance the model through updating and smaller adjustments.

This geological model forms the base of resource estimates, financial mine models during mine planning for production optimization, and during feasibility studies. Once the mine is in operation, this model becomes a valuable control mechanism in forward mine planning and schedules.

We use state of the art software to generate geological models as robust as possible with all of the available data to ensure sound decision making.

Resource Statements

FGA has more than 30 years of experience in database management and resource estimation.

Based on our knowledge and experience of structural influences, geostatistical analysis, resource estimations and operational mining experiences, our procedures to sound ore resource estimates are embedded, while the resource estimation is tailored to the specific project.

The procedure would typically include:

Competent Person Report (CPR)

Competent Person Reports, or CPRs, is the final geological report that summarizes the exploration project as a whole. This report typically would include all of the geological information, all processes followed with the results obtained, all QA/QC procedures that were applied and the resource statement. In other words, it is a comprehensive geological report of the deposit as a whole.

The reporting is done in the format requested by the listing Stock Exchange. CPRs are not only requested by Exchanges, but also by Investing Institutions and prospective buyers. It forms the underlying basis for further feasibility studies.

FGA completed various CPRs successfully over the years for various listings at different Stock Exchanges and investment opportunities.

Auditing of projects/operations

FGA developed a unique approach to auditing that not only assist the project development, but also being informative to the client, ensuring that the work performed fulfill the international requirements at all times.

Auditing are done in terms of: